Chapter 23: Feeding Nursing and Orphaned Kittens from Birth to Weaning References


AAFCO. (Association of American Feed Control Officials). Official Publication. 2007.

Adkins Y, Zicker SC, Lepine A, et al. Changes in nutrient and protein composition of cat milk during lactation. American Journal of Veterinary Research 1997; 58: 370-375.

Baines FM. Milk substitutes and the hand rearing of orphan puppies and kittens. Journal of Small Animal Practice 1981; 22: 555-578.

Casal ML, Jezyk PF, Giger U. Transfer of colostral antibodies from queens to their kittens. American Journal of Veterinary Research 1996; 57: 1653-1658.

Dobenecker B, Zottman B, Kienzle E, et al. Investigations on milk composition and milk yield in queens (abstract). Journal of Nutrition 1998; 128: 2618S.

Earle KE, Smith PM. The taurine requirement of the kitten fed canned food. Journal of Nutrition 1994; 124: 2552S-2554S.

Halle I. Nutrition of the cat. Journal of Veterinary Nutrition. 1992; 1: 17-30.

Hoskins JD. Clinical evaluation of the kitten from birth to eight weeks of age. Compendium on Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian 1990; 12: 1215-1225.

Kienzle E. Activity of carbohydrate-cleaving enzymes in cats as a function of age and feeding. In: Edney ATB, ed. Nutrition, Malnutrition and Dietetics in the Dog and Cat. Proceedings of an International Symposium. Hannover, Germany, September 1987: 19-22.

Lawler DF, Bebiak DM. Nutrition and management of reproduction in the cat. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 1986; 16: 495-519.

Levy JK, Crawford PC, Collante WR, et al. Use of adult cat serum to correct failure of passive transfer in kittens. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2001; 219(10): 1401-1405.

NRC. (National Research Council). Nutrient Requirements of Cats. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1986.

NRC. (National Research Council). Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

Pawlosky RJ, Denkins Y, Ward G, et al. Retinal and brain accretion of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in developing felines: The effects of corn oil-based maternal diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997; 65: 465-472.

Pawlosky RJ, Salem N. Is dietary arachidonic acid necessary for feline reproduction? Journal of Nutrition 1996; 126: 1081S-1085S.

Pedersen NC, Wastlhuber J. Cattery design and management. In: Pedersen NC, ed. Feline Husbandry: Diseases and Management in the Multiple-Cat Environment. Goleta, CA: American Veterinary Publications, 1991; 393-438.

Remillard RL, Pickett JP, Thatcher CD, et al. Comparison of kittens fed queen’s milk with those fed milk replacers. American Journal of Veterinary Research 1993; 54: 901-907.

Smalley KA, Rogers QR, Morris JG, et al. The nitrogen requirement of the weanling kitten. British Journal of Nutrition 1985; 53: 501-512.


Suggested Reading: Orphaned Kitten Care


Adkins Y, Zicker SC, Lepine A, et al. Protein and nutrient composition of cat milk throughout lactation (abstract). The FASEB Journal 1995; 9: 1019.

Beaver BV. Behavior development and behavioral disorders. In: Hoskins JD, ed. Veterinary Pediatrics: Dogs and Cats from Birth to Six Months. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co, 1990; 19-28.

Greco DS. The physical examination. In: Hoskins, JD, ed. Veterinary Pediatrics: Dogs and Cats from Birth to Six Months. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co, 1990; 1-7.

Harvey CE, Emily PP. Function, formation and anatomy of oral structures in carnivores. In: Small Animal Dentistry. St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book, Inc, 1993; 1-18.

Hoskins JD, ed. Nutrition and nutritional disorders. In: Veterinary Pediatrics: Dogs and Cats from Birth to Six Months. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co, 1990; 473-486.

Lawler DF, Evans RH. Nutritional and environmental considerations in neonatal medicine. In: Kirk RW, Bonagura JD, eds. Current Veterinary Therapy X. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co, 1989; 1325-1333.

Lawler DF. Canine and feline periparturient problems. In: Small Animal Reproduction and Pediatrics, Purina Specialty Review, Pro Visions 1991; 21-51.

Root MV, Johnston SD, Olson PN. Estrus length, pregnancy rate, gestation and parturition lengths, litter size, and juvenile mortality in the domestic cat. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association 1995; 31: 429-433.

Siegal M, ed. Kittens and disorders. In: The Cornell Book of Cats. New York, NY: Villard Books, 1991; 41-47.

Vondruska JF. Diagnosis of pregnancy in cats. Veterinary Medicine/Small Animal Clinician 1983; 78: 1225-1230.



Box 23-2 Bibliography


Loveridge GG. Factors affecting kitten growth. In: Edney ATB, ed. Nutrition, Malnutrition and Dietetics in the Dog and Cat. Proceedings of an International Symposium. Hannover, Germany, September 1987: 6-61.

Munday HS, Earle KE. The energy requirements of the queen during lactation and kittens from birth to 12 weeks. Journal of Nutrition 1991; 121: S43-S44.

NRC. (National Research Council). Nutrient Requirements of Cats. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1986.

NRC. (National Research Council). Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006.

Pedersen NC, ed. Common infectious diseases of multiple-cat environments. In: Feline Husbandry: Diseases and Management in the Multiple-Cat Environment. Goleta, CA: American Veterinary Publications, 1991; 163-288.