Small Animal Clinical Nutrition

The most comprehensive and practical small animal nutrition resource available.

Chapter 40: Canine Calcium Oxalate Urolithiasis: Changing Paradigms in Detection, Management and Prevention References


Adams LG, Senior DF. Electrohydraulic and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 1999; 29: 293-302.

Allison MJ, Cook HM, Milne DB, et al. Oxalate degradation by gastrointestinal bacteria from humans. Journal of Nutrition 1986; 116(3): 455-460.

Allison MJ, Dawson KA, Mayberry WR, et al. Oxalobacter formigenes gen. nov., sp. nov.: Oxalate-degrading anaerobes that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Archives of Microbiology 1985; 141(1): 1-7.

Bai SC, Sampson DA, Morris JG, et al. Vitamin B6 requirement of growing kittens. Journal of Nutrition 1989; 119: 1020-1027.

Baruch SB, Burich RL, Eun CK, et al. Renal metabolism of citrate. Medical Clinics of North America 1975; 59: 569-582.

Berenyl M, Frang D, Legrady J. Theoretical and clinical importance of the differentiation between the two types of calcium oxalate hydrate. International Journal of Urology and Nephrology 1972; 4: 341-345.

Brautbar N, Walling MW, Coburn JW. Role of dietary phosphate in the intestinal absorption of calcium and the response to vitamin D. Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism 1979; 2: 211-212.

Breslau NA, Brinkley L, Hill KD, et al. Relationship of animal protein-rich diet to kidney stone formation and calcium metabolism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 1988; 140: 140-146.

Brown NO, Parks JL, Greene RW. Recurrence of canine urolithiasis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1977; 170: 419-422.

Carvalho M, Lulich JP, Osborne CA, et al. Defective urinary crystallization inhibition and urinary stone formation. International Brazil Journal of Urology 2006; 32(2): 342-349.

Churchill DN, Taylor DW. Thiazides for patients with recurrent calcium stones. Journal of Urology 1985; 133: 749-751.

Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, et al. A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. New England Journal of Medicine 1993; 328: 833-838.

Curhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE, et al. Comparison of dietary calcium with supplemental calcium and other nutrients as factors affecting the risk of kidney stones in women. Annals of Internal Medicine 1997; 126: 497-504.

Curhan GC. Epidemiology of stone disease. Urologic Clinics of North America 2007; 34: 287-293.

Daniel SL, Hartman PA, Allison MJ. Microbial degradation of oxalate in the gastrointestinal tracts of rats. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1987; 53(8): 1793-1797.

Deganello S. The interaction between nephrocalcin and Tamm-Horsfall proteins with calcium oxalate dihydrate. Scanning Microscopy 1993; 7: 1111-1118.

Federici F, Vitali B, Gotti R, et al. Characterization and heterologous expression of the oxalyl coenzyme A decarboxylase gene from Bifidobacterium lactis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2004; 70(9): 5066-5073.

Finco DR, Barsanti JA, Crowell WA. Characterization of magnesium induced urinary disease in the cat and comparison with feline urologic syndrome. American Journal of Veterinary Research 1985; 46: 391-400.

Hamm LL, Hering-Smith KS. Pathophysiology of hypocitraturic nephrolithiasis. Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America 2002; 31(4): 885-893.

Hatch M, Cornelius J, Allison M, et al. Oxalobacter sp. reduces urinary oxalate excretion by promoting enteric oxalate secretion. Kidney International 2006; 69(4): 691-698.

Hokama S, Honma Y, Toma C, et al. Oxalate-degrading Enterococcus faecalis. Microbiology and Immunology 2000; 44(4): 235-240.

Hoppe B, Beck B, Gatter N, et al. Oxalobacter formigenes: A potential tool for the treatment of primary hyperoxaluria type 1. Kidney International 2006; 70(7): 1305-1311.

Ito H, Miura N, Masai M, et al. Reduction of oxalate content of foods by the oxalate degrading bacterium, Eubacterium lentum WYH-1. International Journal of Urology 1996; 3(1): 31-34.

Kallfelz FA, Crosetti C, Tukenmez I. Urinary tract obstruction in calves induced by dietary management. Proceedings of the Internal Atomic Energy Agency 1986; 292: 535-546.

Koide T, Itatani H, Yoshioka T, et al. Clinical manifestations of calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate urolithiasis. Journal of Urology 1982; 127: 1067-1069.

Lekcharoensuk C, Osborne CA, Lulich JP, et al. Associations between dietary factors in canned food and formation of calcium oxalate uroliths in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research 2002; 63: 163-169.

Lekcharoensuk C, Osborne CA, Lulich JP, et al. Associations between dry dietary factors and canine calcium oxalate uroliths. American Journal of Veterinary Research 2002a; 63: 163-169.

Leman J, Piering WF, Lennon EJ. Possible role of carbohydrate induced calciuria in calcium oxalate kidney-stone formation. New England Journal of Medicine 1969; 280: 232-237.

Leusmann DB, Meyer-Jurgens UB, Kleinhans G. Scanning electron microscopy of urinary calculi: Some peculiarities. Scanning Electron Microscopy 1984; 3: 1427-1432.

Lulich JP, Gnanandarajah JS, Murtaugh MP, et al. Is the lack of oxalate degrading bacteria a risk factor for calcium oxalate urolith formation in dogs? International Urolithiasis Symposium, September, 2008, Nice, France; (In press).

Lulich JP, Osborne CA, Carlson M, et al. Nonsurgical removal of urocystoliths by voiding urohydropropulsion. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1993; 203: 660-663.

Lulich JP, Osborne CA, Daubs B, et al. Biologic behavior of calcium oxalate uroliths in Bichon Frise dogs. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2004; 18: 440-441.

Lulich JP, Osborne CA, Lekcharoensuk C, et al. Effects of hydrochlorothiazide and diet in dogs with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2001; 218: 1583-1586.

Lulich JP, Osborne CA, Nagode LA, et al. Evaluation of urine and serum metabolites in miniature schnauzers with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. American Journal of Veterinary Research 1991; 52: 1583-1590.

Lulich JP, Osborne CA, Polzin DJ, et al. Urine metabolic values in fed and nonfed clinically normal beagles. American Journal of Veterinary Research 1991a; 52: 1573-1578.

Lulich JP, Osborne CA, Smith CL. Canine calcium oxalate urolithiasis: Risk factor management. In: Kirk RW, Bonagura JD, eds. Current Veterinary Therapy XI. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders, 1992; 892-899.

Lulich JP, Osborne CA. Catheter-assisted retrieval of urocystoliths from dogs and cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1992; 201: 111-113.

Lulich JP, Perrine L, Osborne CA, et al. Postsurgical recurrence of calcium oxalate uroliths in dogs (abstract). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 1992a; 6: 119.

Lulich JP. Effects of chlorothiazide on urinary excretion of calcium in clinically normal dogs. PhD Thesis. University of Minnesota, St. Paul, 1991b; 161-182.

Lulich JP. Influence of dietary magnesium on urinary calcium excretion in clinically normal dogs. PhD Thesis. University of Minnesota, St. Paul, 1991a; 141-151.

Lulich JP. Influence of dietary sodium on urinary calcium excretion in clinically normal dogs. PhD Thesis. University of Minnesota, St. Paul, 1991; 123-133.

Lung HY, Baetz AL, Peck AB. Molecular cloning, DNA sequence, and gene expression of the oxalyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase gene, oxc, from the bacterium Oxalobacter formigenes. Journal of Bacteriology 1994; 176(8): 2468-2472.

Mandel NS, Mandel GS. Urinary tract stone disease in the United States veteran population. I. Geographical frequency of occurrence. Journal of Urology 1989; 142: 1513-1515.

Melnick I, Landes RR, Hoffmann AA, et al. Magnesium therapy for recurring calcium oxalate urinary calculi. Journal of Urology 1971; 105: 119-122.

Meyer JL, Smith LH. Growth of calcium oxalate crystals. II. Inhibition by natural urinary crystal growth inhibitors. Investigative Urology 1969; 6: 412-422.

Nakagawa Y, Abram V, Kezdy FJ, et al. Purification and characterization of the principal inhibitor of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth in human urine. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1983; 258: 12594-12599.

Nicar MJ, Hill K, Pak CYC. Inhibition by citrate of spontaneous precipitation of calcium oxalate in vitro. Journal of Bone Mineral Research 1987; 2: 215-220.

NRC. (National Research Council.) Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. National Academies Press, Washington DC, 2006.

Osborne CA, Lulich JP. Analysis of 36,032 canine uroliths during 2006: Perspectives from the Minnesota Urolith Center. DVM Newsmagazine June 2007; 38(6): 2S-4S.

Otnes B. Urinary stone analysis: Methods, materials and value. Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology 1983; 71 (Suppl.): 7-109.

Pak CY, Adams-Huet B, Poindexter JR, et al. Rapid communication: Relative effect of urinary calcium and oxalate on saturation of calcium oxalate. Kidney International 2004; 66(5): 2032-2037.

Park S, Pearle MS. Pathophysiology and management of calcium stones. Urologic Clinics of North America 2007; 34: 323-334.

Reddy ST, Wang CY, Sakhaee K, et al. Effect of low-carbohydrate high-protein diets on acid-base balance, stone forming propensity, and calcium metabolism. American Journal of Kidney Disease 2002; 40(2): 265-274.

Ruan ZS, Anantharam V, Crawford IT, et al. Identification, purification, and reconstitution of OxlT, the oxalate: Formate antiport protein of Oxalobacter formigenes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1992; 267(15): 10537-10543.

Schubert G, Brien G. Crystallographic investigations of urinary calcium oxalate calculi. International Journal of Urology and Nephrology 1981; 13: 249-260.

Sidhu H, Allison MJ, Chow JM, et al. Rapid reversal of hyperoxaluria in a rat model after probiotic administration of Oxalobacter formigenes. Journal of Urology 2001; 166(4): 1487-1491.

Sidhu H, Ogden SD, Lung HY, et al. DNA sequencing and expression of the formyl coenzyme A transferase gene, frc, from Oxalobacter formigenes. Journal of Bacteriology 1997; 179(10): 3378-3381.

Sidhu H, Schmidt ME, Cornelius JG, et al. Direct correlation between hyperoxaluria/oxalate stone disease and the absence of the gastrointestinal tract-dwelling bacterium Oxalobacter formigenes: Possible prevention by gut recolonization or enzyme replacement therapy. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1999; 10 (Suppl. 14): S334-40.

Simpson DP. Citrate excretion: A window on renal metabolism. American Journal of Physiology 1983; 244: F223-F234.

Smith LH. Diet and hyperoxaluria in the syndrome of idiopathic calcium oxalate urolithiasis. American Journal of Kidney Disease 1991; 17: 370-375.

Smith LH. Hyperoxaluric states. In: Coe FL, Favus MJ, eds. Disorders of Bone and Mineral Metabolism. New York, NY: Raven Press Ltd, 1992; 707-727.

Soucie J, Coates R, McClellan W, et al. Relation between geographic variability in kidney stone prevalence and risk factors for stones. American Journal of Epidemiology 1996; 143: 487-495.

Sutton RA, Wong NL, Dirks J. Effects of metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on sodium and calcium transport in the dog kidney. Kidney International 1979; 15: 520-533.

Tomazic BB, Nancollas GH. The dissolution of calcium oxalate kidney stones: A kinetic study. Journal of Urology 1982; 128: 205-208.

Troxel SA, Sidhu H, Kaul P, et al. Intestinal Oxalobacter formigenes colonization in CaOx stone formers and its relation to urinary oxalate. Journal of Endourology 2003; 17(3): 173-176.

Weese JS, Weese HE, Yuricek L, et al. Oxalate degradation by intestinal lactic acid bacteria in dogs and cats. Veterinary Microbiology 2004; 101(3): 161-166.

Williams HE, Smith LH. Primary hyperoxaluria. In: Stanbury JB, Wyngaarden JB, Fredickson DS, et al, eds. The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease, 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1983; 204-228.






Copyright Ⓒ 2019 Mark Morris Institute
v.1b53