Chapter 44: Canine Silica Urolithiasis: Causes, Detection, Treatment and Prevention References


Aldrich J, Ling GV, Ruby AL, et al. Silica-containing urinary calculi in dogs (1981-1993). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 1997; 11: 288-295.

Ammerman CB, Fontenot JP, Fox MRS, et al. Silicon. In: Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1980; 421-430.

Bailey CB. Renal function in cows with particular reference to the clearance of silicic acid. Research in Veterinary Science 1970; 11: 533-539.

Bailey CB. Siliceous urinary calculi in calves: Prevention by addition of sodium chloride to the diet. Science 1966; 155: 696-697.

Beeson WM, Pence JW, Holm GC. Urinary calculi in sheep. American Journal of Veterinary Research 1943; 4: 120-126.

Benke GM, Osborn TW. Urinary silicon excretion by rats following oral administration of silicon compounds. Food and Cosmetics Toxicology 1979; 17: 123-127.

Brodey RS, Thomson R, Sayer P, et al. Silicate renal calculi in Kenyan dogs. Journal of Small Animal Practice 1977; 18: 523-528.

Coe FL, Flavus MJ. Nephrolithiasis. In: Brenner BM, Rector FC Jr, eds. The Kidney, 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders Co, 1991; 1728-1767.

Ehrhart LA, McCullagh KG. Silica uroliths in dogs fed an atherogenic diet. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 1973; 143: 131-132.

Emerick RJ, Embry LB, Olson OE. Effect of sodium silicate on the development of urinary calculi and excretion of various urinary constituents in sheep. Journal of Animal Science 1959; 18: 1025-1030.

Emerick RJ, Embry LB. Urinary calculi. South Dakota Farm and Home Research 1960; 11: 12-14.

Emerick RJ, Kugel EE, Wallace V. Urinary excretion of silica and the production of siliceous urinary calculi in rats. American Journal of Veterinary Research 1963; 24: 610-613.

Emerick RJ. Chloride and phosphate as impediments to silica urinary calculi in rats fed tetraethyl orthosilicate. Journal of Nutrition 1984; 114: 733-738.

Farrer JH, Rajfer J. Silicate urolithiasis. Journal of Urology 1984; 132: 739-740.

Forman SA, Whiting F, Connell R. Silica urolithiasis in cattle. 3. Chemical and physical composition of uroliths. Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine 1959; 4: 157-162.

Herman JR, Goldberg AS. New type of urinary calculus caused by antacid therapy. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1960; 174: 1206-1207.

King EJ, Stantial H, Dolan M. The biochemistry of silicic acid. III. The excretion of administered silica. Biochemical Journal 1933; 27: 1007-1014.

Levison DA, Crocker PR, Banim S, et al. Silica stones in the urinary bladder. Lancet 1982; 1: 704-705.

Ling GV. Lower urinary tract disease of dogs and cats: Diagnosis, medical management, and prevention. St Louis, MO: Mosby, 1995.

Lulich JP, Osborne CA, Carlson M, et al. Nonsurgical removal of urocystoliths by voiding urohydropropulsion. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1993; 203: 660-663.

McCullagh KG, Ehrhart LA. Silica urolithiasis in laboratory dogs fed semisynthetic diets. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1974; 164: 712-714.

Osborne CA, Clinton CW, Kim KM, et al. Etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management of silica urolithiasis. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 1986; 16: 185-207.

Osborne CA, Hammer RF, Klausner JS. Canine silica urolithiasis. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1981; 178: 809-813.

Osborne CA, Jacob F, Lulich JP, et al. Canine silica urolithiasis: Risk factors, detection, treatment and prevention. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 1999; 29: 213-230.

Pyrah LN. Renal calculus. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1979; 95-99.

Salisbury FB, Ross CW. In: Plant Physiology, 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co, 1985; 540.

Stewart SR, Emerick RJ, Kayongo-Male H. Silicon-zinc interactions and potential roles for dietary zinc and copper in minimizing silica urolithiasis in rats. Journal of Animal Science 1993; 71: 946-954.

Sutor DJ, Wooley SE, Jackson OF. Crystalline material from the feline bladder. Research in Veterinary Science 1970; 11: 298-299.

Underwood EJ. In: Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, 4th ed. New York, NY: Academic Press Inc, 1977; 398-409.

White EG, Porter P. Urinary calculi. In: Medway W, Prier JE, Wilkinson JS, eds. A Textbook of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1969; 132-151.

Yokor H, Saburo E. Effect of degree of polymerization of silicic acid on the gastrointestinal absorption of silicate in rats. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 1979; 27: 1733-1746.